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TITLES OF THE SHAM.
THE STATE OF PERSIA BEFORE THE REVOLUTION
The Sovereign, The Pivot of the Universe, The Sultan, His Auspicious
Majesty, His Royal Majesty, The King of Kings, The Royal Possessor of
Kingdoms, His Majesty the Shadow of Allah, the Khakan.—The Titles of
The Old Order and the New.—The recent revolution
whereby the old order has given place to the new will
be dealt with in the final chapter. It marks the dawn of
a fresh period which at present it would be difficult to
criticise with profit. In this chapter I am dealing entirely
with the state of Persia as I knew it before the revolu-
tion, at a time when there was no idea of adopting a
constitution modelled on European lines.
The Powers of the Shah.—The Shah of Persia was
an absolute monarch. The saying that " the law of the
Medes and Persians altereth not" testifies to this con-
ception of the monarchy in Achaemenian times ; and the
proud, nay arrogant, titles of the Shah given as a heading
to this chapter embodied the Persian conception of his
position as handed down from the bygone centuries.
In his person were " fused the threefold functions of
government, legislative, executive and judicial. He was
the pivot upon which turned the entire machinery of